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Author Topic: Articles on Direct Injection Fuel Systems  (Read 59 times)

Offline SHOdded

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Articles on Direct Injection Fuel Systems
« on: November 29, 2018, 07:29:42 AM »
https://www.sae.org/publications/technical-papers/content/2013-01-2616/
2013-10-14
Measurement and Control of Fuel Injector Deposits in Direct Injection Gasoline Vehicles 2013-01-2616
Vehicle manufactures are significantly increasing the production of Direct Injection Gasoline (DIG) engines to help meet the requirements of governmental regulations and the demands of consumers. While DIG powertrains offer multiple advantages over conventional gasoline engines they can be susceptible to fuel related deposit formation, specifically within the fuel injector nozzle. Fuel injector deposits have been linked to a number of negative effects that can impact the normal operation of the engine.

A DIG deposit test has been developed to evaluate Deposit Control Additives (DCA) and their effect on injector deposits. Multiple metrics for evaluating fuel injector deposits were investigated to determine a suitable method for quantifying deposit formation. Interrogation of the vehicle On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) system was identified as the optimal method for quantifying deposit formation throughout the duration of the test.

Accelerated DIG deposit testing was carried out on a wide variety of late model DIG vehicles on a chassis dynamometer for the purpose of evaluating and discriminating DIG DCA products and candidates. In addition, ongoing testing with a vehicle fleet is being conducted to determine if real-world injector deposits will form while using commercial fuels with DCAs.

Testing has shown that DCAs can be developed to specifically prevent and control deposit formation within DIG injectors. Conversely, DCAs that are formulated to reduce Port Fuel Injector (PFI) deposits may not effectively control DIG injector deposits.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-2616
Citation: Smith, S. and Imoehl, W., "Measurement and Control of Fuel Injector Deposits in Direct Injection Gasoline Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2616, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-2616.
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Author(s): S. Scott Smith, William Imoehl
Affiliated: Afton Chemical Corporation, Continental Automotive Systems
Pages: 10
Event: SAE/KSAE 2013 International Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting
« Last Edit: November 29, 2018, 07:31:20 AM by SHOdded »
2007 Ford Edge SEL, Powerstop F/R Brake Kit, TXT LED 6000K Lo & Hi Beams, W16W LED Reverse Bulbs, 3BSpec 2.5w Map Lights, 5W Cree rear dome lights, 5W Cree cargo light, DTBL LED Taillights

If tuned:  Take note of the strategy code as you return to stock (including 3 bar MAP to 2 bar MAP) -> take car in & get it serviced -> check strategy code when you get car back -> have tuner update your tune if the strategy code has changed -> reload tune -> ENJOY!

Offline SHOdded

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Re: Articles on Direct Injection Fuel Systems
« Reply #1 on: November 29, 2018, 07:30:39 AM »
https://www.sae.org/publications/technical-papers/content/2009-01-1495/
Quote
2009-04-20
Engine Test for Accelerated Fuel Deposit Formation on Injectors Used in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines 2009-01-1495
An accelerated fuel injector deposit formation test was developed to understand fuel deposit formation on fuel injectors for Gasoline Direct injection engines. As part of the test development, both a side mount and a central mount Gasoline Direct injection style 4 cylinder engines were operated in homogeneous mode. Initial attempts to form plugging deposits by running the engine continuously resulted in significant deposits forming on the exterior surface of the Gasoline Direct injection fuel injector tip; however, these deposits did not impact fuel flow.

Ultimately, Gasoline Direct injection injector plugging was successfully accomplished using a test similar to the Port Fuel Injector test cycle presented in SAE 2005-01-3841 (1), “Development of a Robust Injector Design for Superior Deposit Resistance”. Test cycles included run time to reach operating temperature followed by engine soak and cool-down. Engine soak and injector tip temperatures were determined to be the most important factors contributing to injector plugging.

This engine test, used in conjunction with Delphi's gasoline deposit-forming fuel, resulted in an accelerated, repeatable test that formed fuel deposits resulting in fuel injector lean flow shift. Fuel deposit location and chemistry replicated deposits found on fuel injectors operated in the real world.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-01-1495
Citation: Von Bacho, P., Sofianek, J., Galante-Fox, J., and McMahon, C., "Engine Test for Accelerated Fuel Deposit Formation on Injectors Used in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1495, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-01-1495.
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Author(s): Paul S. Von Bacho, Jay K. Sofianek, Julie M. Galante-Fox, Charles J. McMahon
Affiliated: Delphi Powertrain Systems
Pages: 5
Event: SAE World Congress & Exhibition
Also in: SI Combustion and Direct Injection SI Engine Technology, 2009-SP-2241
2007 Ford Edge SEL, Powerstop F/R Brake Kit, TXT LED 6000K Lo & Hi Beams, W16W LED Reverse Bulbs, 3BSpec 2.5w Map Lights, 5W Cree rear dome lights, 5W Cree cargo light, DTBL LED Taillights

If tuned:  Take note of the strategy code as you return to stock (including 3 bar MAP to 2 bar MAP) -> take car in & get it serviced -> check strategy code when you get car back -> have tuner update your tune if the strategy code has changed -> reload tune -> ENJOY!

Offline SHOdded

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Re: Articles on Direct Injection Fuel Systems
« Reply #2 on: November 29, 2018, 07:37:53 AM »
https://www.astm.org/Standards/D6201.htm
Quote
ASTM D6201 - 18
Standard Test Method for Dynamometer Evaluation of Unleaded Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel for Intake Valve Deposit Formation

Active Standard ASTM D6201 | Developed by Subcommittee: D02.A0.01

Book of Standards Volume: 05.03

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MORE D02.A0.01 STANDARDSRELATED PRODUCTSSTANDARD REFERENCES
Significance and Use

5.1 Test Method—The Coordinating Research Council sponsored testing to develop this test method to evaluate a fuel's tendency to form intake valve deposits.

5.1.1 State and Federal Legislative and Regulatory Action—Regulatory action by California Air Resources Board (CARB)9 and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)10 necessitate the acceptance of a standardized test method to evaluate the intake system deposit forming tendency of an automotive spark-ignition engine fuel.

5.1.2 Relevance of Results—The operating conditions and design of the engine used in this test method are not representative of all engines. These factors shall be considered when interpreting test results.

5.2 Test Validity:

5.2.1 Procedural Compliance—The test results are not considered valid unless the test is completed in compliance with all requirements of this test method. Deviations from the parameter limits presented in Sections 12 – 14 will result in an invalid test. Apply engineering judgment during conduct of the test method when assessing any anomalies to ensure validity of the test results.

5.2.2 Engine Compliance—A test is not considered valid unless the test engine meets the quality control inspection requirements as described in Sections 10 and 12.

1. Scope

1.1 This test method covers an engine dynamometer test procedure for evaluation of intake valve deposit formation of unleaded spark-ignition engine fuels.2 This test method uses a Ford Ranger 2.3 L four-cylinder engine. This test method includes detailed information regarding the procedure, hardware, and operations.

1.2 The ASTM Test Monitoring Center (TMC)3 is responsible for engine test stand calibration as well as issuance of information letters after test method modifications are approved by Subcommittee D02.A0 and Committee D02. Users of this test method shall request copies of recent information letters from the TMC to ensure proper conduct of the test method.

1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses after SI units are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific warning statements are given throughout this test method.

1.5 This test method is arranged as follows:

Subject   Section
Scope   1
Referenced Documents   2
Terminology   3
Summary of Test Method   4
Significance and Use   5
Apparatus   6
 Laboratory Facilities   6.1
 Engine and Cylinder Head Build-Up and Measurement Area   6.1.1
 Engine Operating Area   6.1.2
 Fuel Injector Testing Area   6.1.3
 Intake Valve Rinsing and Parts Cleaning Area   6.1.4
 Parts Rating and Intake Valve Weighing Area   6.1.5
 Test Stand Laboratory Equipment   6.2
 Test Stand Configuration   6.2.1
 Dynamometer Speed and Load Control System   6.2.2
 Intake Air Supply System   6.2.3
 Exhaust System   6.2.4
 Fuel Supply System   6.2.5
 Engine Control Calibration   6.2.6
 Ignition System   6.2.7
 Engine Coolant System   6.2.8
 External Oil System   6.2.9
 Temperature Measurement Equipment and Locations   6.2.10
 Pressure Measurement Equipment and Locations   6.2.11
 Flow Measurement Equipment and Locations   6.2.12
 Speed and Load Measurement Equipment and Locations   6.2.13
 Exhaust Emissions Measurement Equipment and Location   6.2.14
 DPFE (EGR) Voltage Measurement Equipment and Location   6.2.15
 Ignition Timing Measurement Equipment and Location   6.2.16
 Test Engine Hardware   6.3
 Test Engine Parts   6.3.1
 New Parts Required   6.3.2
 Reusable Engine Parts   6.3.3
 Special Measurement and Assembly Equipment   6.4
Reagents and Materials   7
Hazards   8
Reference Fuel   9
Preparation of Apparatus   10
 Test Stand Preparation   10.1
 Engine Block Preparation   10.2
 Preparation of Miscellaneous Engine Components   10.3
 Cylinder Head Preparation   10.4
 Cylinder Head Assembly   10.5
 Cylinder Head Installation   10.6
 Final Engine Assembly   10.7
Calibration   11
 Test Stand Calibration   11.1
 Instrumentation Calibration   11.2
Procedure   12
 Pretest Procedure   12.1
 Engine Operating Procedure   12.2
 Periodic Measurements and Functions   12.3
 End of Test Procedures   12.4
Determination of Test Results   13
 Post-Test Intake Valve Weighing Procedure   13.1
 Photographs of Parts—General   13.2
 Induction System Rating   13.3
 Determination of Test Validity-Engine Conformance   13.4
Report   14
Precision and Bias   15
Keywords   16
Annexes   
Detailed Specifications and Photographs of Apparatus   Annex A1
Engine Part Number Listing   Annex A2
Statistical Equations for Mean and Standard Deviation   Annex A3

1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately)

ASTM Standards

D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels at Atmospheric Pressure
D235 Specification for Mineral Spirits (Petroleum Spirits) (Hydrocarbon Dry Cleaning Solvent)
D287 Test Method for API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method)
D381 Test Method for Gum Content in Fuels by Jet Evaporation
D525 Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Gasoline (Induction Period Method)
D873 Test Method for Oxidation Stability of Aviation Fuels (Potential Residue Method)
D1266 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (Lamp Method)
D1298 Test Method for Density, Relative Density, or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method
D1319 Test Method for Hydrocarbon Types in Liquid Petroleum Products by Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption
D1744 Test Method for Determination of Water in Liquid Petroleum Products by Karl Fischer Reagent
D2427 Test Method for Determination of C2 through C5 Hydrocarbons in Gasolines by Gas Chromatography
D2622 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D3237 Test Method for Lead in Gasoline by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
D4057 Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
D4294 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum and Petroleum Products by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
D4814 Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
D4953 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Gasoline and Gasoline-Oxygenate Blends (Dry Method)
D5059 Test Methods for Lead in Gasoline by X-Ray Spectroscopy
D5190 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Automatic Method)
D5191 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method)
D5302 Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils for Inhibition of Deposit Formation and Wear in a Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine Fueled with Gasoline and Operated Under Low-Temperature, Light-Duty Conditions
D5482 Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method--Atmospheric)
E203 Test Method for Water Using Volumetric Karl Fischer Titration
E1064 Test Method for Water in Organic Liquids by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

SAE Standard

J254 Instrumentation and Techniques for Exhaust Gas Emissions Measurement
ANSI Standard

MC96.1 Temperature Measurement-Thermocouples
Keywords

Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuels - Dynamometers - Gasoline - Intake Valve Deposit Test - Performance Test - Unleaded Automotive Gasoline

ICS Code

ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)

UNSPSC Code

UNSPSC Code 15101506(Gasoline or Petrol)

Referencing This Standard
Link Here

http://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/resolver.cgi?D6201-18
Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

http://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/resolver.cgi?D6201
DOI: 10.1520/D6201-18

Citation Format

ASTM D6201-18, Standard Test Method for Dynamometer Evaluation of Unleaded Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel for Intake Valve Deposit Formation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.org
2007 Ford Edge SEL, Powerstop F/R Brake Kit, TXT LED 6000K Lo & Hi Beams, W16W LED Reverse Bulbs, 3BSpec 2.5w Map Lights, 5W Cree rear dome lights, 5W Cree cargo light, DTBL LED Taillights

If tuned:  Take note of the strategy code as you return to stock (including 3 bar MAP to 2 bar MAP) -> take car in & get it serviced -> check strategy code when you get car back -> have tuner update your tune if the strategy code has changed -> reload tune -> ENJOY!

Offline SHOdded

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Re: Articles on Direct Injection Fuel Systems
« Reply #3 on: November 29, 2018, 07:54:24 AM »
https://www.lubrizol.com/Lubricant-and-Fuel-Additives/Fuel-Additives/Products/Lubrizol-9040-Zer0-Series/Performance/Diesel-Injector-Deposits
While an article on diesel, the technological aspects apply to gasoline as well.  Excerpt:
Quote
Lubrizol 9040 Zer0 Series Total Deposit Control
Lubrizol 9040 Zer0 Series offers total deposit control capability. In addition to providing outstanding control of conventional nozzle coking deposits, both in mineral and biodiesel blended fuels, it is also highly effective in the prevention and removal of internal injector deposits. Lubrizol’s market proven deposit control additive offers a true one stop solution for both internal and external nozzle coking issues in both old and latest technology diesel engines.

Fuel Additives and Internal Deposits
Combinations of fuel additives such as mono-acidic lubricity improvers and conventional succinimide deposit control additives (DCAs) have been suggested as one of the possible causes of IDID. These types of additives have many years of successful field use and are widely known to be extremely beneficial in preventing wear and deposit formation in fuel injection systems. Lubrizol has recently tested our successful conventional succinimide DCA in combination with a proven mono-acidic lubricity improver in the common rail DW10 engine looking specifically for internal deposits, using an extended version of the CEC F-98-08 method. No evidence was found that these additives contribute to IDID deposits. During this series of DW10 tests, no unusual operating parameters were observed. After the test, disassembly of the fuel injectors showed completely clean internal parts with no evidence of deposits.

Makes you wonder about winter fuel.  We know water forms in Eblended gasolines in cold weather.  We use methanol or isopropanol to break up/solubilize the water.  Are we creating a drier, less-lubricating fuel in the process?  Lubrication is of definite importance to any fuel injector, PFI or DI, as is evidenced by improved performance by the addition of TC-W3 or Lucas UCL/FIC type products to the fuel.
2007 Ford Edge SEL, Powerstop F/R Brake Kit, TXT LED 6000K Lo & Hi Beams, W16W LED Reverse Bulbs, 3BSpec 2.5w Map Lights, 5W Cree rear dome lights, 5W Cree cargo light, DTBL LED Taillights

If tuned:  Take note of the strategy code as you return to stock (including 3 bar MAP to 2 bar MAP) -> take car in & get it serviced -> check strategy code when you get car back -> have tuner update your tune if the strategy code has changed -> reload tune -> ENJOY!

 

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